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Businesses urged to get to know their supply chain when hiring

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by Crawford Temple, CEO of Professional Passport

 

Given the current climate and a raft of media exposure around ethics, exploitation and non-compliance in the recruitment and contingent workforce industry, it has never been more important that everyone in the supply chain works together to develop good working practices.  We know that there are cases of bad practice amongst a minority of businesses that have grabbed the headlines but there are also a large number of highly compliant organisations working ethically and correctly to provide a high-level quality service for clients and contractors.  Knowing who you are working with and knowing that your supply chain is operating compliantly is not to be ignored says Crawford Temple, CEO of Professional Passport, the UK’s largest independent assessor of payment intermediary compliance.

The new Off-Payroll reforms that came into effect in the private sector in April 2021 now means that the end hirer becomes responsible for assessing a contractor’s IR35 status.  It has also led to an increasing number of contractors working through umbrella firms.  And some of those are not what they purport to be but are posing as an umbrella firm.  In reality, they are tax avoidance schemes duping unwitting contractors into signing up for them, often with the promise of more take-home pay.

And, HMRC is simply not clamping down on the dodgy schemes fast enough or concertedly enough, despite having the relevant data and information to help them identify such schemes.  However, just lately, HMRC has become more active in sending out their tax avoidance warning letters to workers suggesting they may be in a disguised remuneration or tax avoidance scheme.

In some ways, this is good news. However, as we have said many times, we believe that HMRC’s focus to pursue workers is the wrong strategy and simply serves to incentivise the promoters of these arrangements.  HMRC should be chasing up the tax recovery from the promoters, not the innocent workers.

Faced with a proliferation of non-compliant schemes it has never been more important that hiring firms get to know their partners throughout the supply chain and take steps to know that their recruitment partners and the umbrella firms that they work with are operating to the most robust compliant standards that will stand up to rigorous interrogation and investigation.

There are several steps to take to check the credibility and compliance of other parties in the supply chain and you can add specific requirements to your contracts with your recruiters so that you secure assurances and reassurances.   You can start by checking out your recruiters. Are they in a good financial position?  At the very least you should be running a credit check, and you should also investigate their accounts – if independently audited then you can feel reassured that the figures given are true. You should also check for issues such as conflicting business interests, previously failed businesses, financial difficulties and offshore connections.

You will also want to check their contracts of employment (umbrella), insurances and levels of cover.  You are well within your rights to request to see a copy of their insurance certificates, VAT certificate and certificate of incorporation.  Don’t forget you are trusting your partners with large sums of money, so you will need to be assured that they are genuine and have appropriate cover in place.  And ask your recruiters to confirm the names of the intermediaries they work with and run similar checks on those.

Such an audit would identify a high-risk provider, one more likely to be a disguised remuneration scheme where malpractice and unethical behaviour is occurring, a medium risk provider, which is one where there is no evidence of non-compliance but no evidence that their services have been verified for compliance either and a low-risk umbrella provider, one which holds a recognised compliance accreditation certificate and is unlikely to pose any sort of threat to the supply chain.  An increasing number of recruiters work only with approved providers, but end clients must do their own checks and put processes in place to ascertain compliance.

Compliant umbrella firms offer a legitimate contractor management solution that gives individuals all the benefits of employment whilst working on a variety of assignments and good umbrella firms are open and transparent in their dealings with workers and provide a clear contract of employment that explains how they will be paid, what deductions there will be and for what, how their expenses are paid and how their holiday pay is worked out.  Open transparent communication is key throughout the supply chain and end clients must educate themselves about how umbrellas work so that they can feel assured that they are part of a compliant chain.

Hirers must have honest conversations with their recruiters and ask key questions and understand the warning signs and what to avoid when looking at the providers in the market.

The importance of implementing effective compliance processes cannot be overstated.  Non-compliance does not pay and could be costly in the long run.

 

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CBDCs: the key to transform cross-border payments

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Dr. Ruth Wandhöfer, Board Director at RTGS.global

 

If you work in finance, you’ll have been hearing a lot about central bank digital currencies (CBDCs) and the moves different markets are making towards using, regulating and evaluating the viability of moving to an economy based on digital currency.

We are already seeing progress in the research, piloting and introduction of CBDCs into the financial system. The Banque de France for example, recently launched its second phase of CBDC experiments in line with the “triple digital revolution” unfolding in the financial sector. The infrastructures of financial markets and fintechs, however, are not prepared to accommodate their security, stability, and viability.

This could be an issue in the not too distant future. Each year, global corporates move nearly $23.5 trillion between countries, equivalent to about 25% of global GDP. This requires them to use wholesale cross-border payment processes, which remain suboptimal from a cost, speed, and transparency perspective. In fact, the G20 cross-border payments programme considers improving access to domestic payment systems that settle in central bank money, as one of the key components in facilitating increased speed and reducing the costs of cross-border payments.

The current state of cross-border payments

International transactions based on fiat are currently slow, expensive, and highly risky due to today’s disconnected financial infrastructure, messaging, and liquidity. Wholesale cross-border payment settlement can take 48 hours or longer, which is not practical in today’s digital world. Even if not every market moves to CBDCs, in an increasingly digital era, cross-border settlements between central banks will unavoidably involve dealing with CBDCs. So, not only will we have different currencies, we’ll have different technical forms of currency being exchanged – digital and fiat – as markets adopt CBDCs at different rates, adding another layer of complexity to cross-border settlements.

While there is much anticipation about the opportunities CBDCs can bring, the adoption of this technology will only be widespread if payment and settlement capabilities are overhauled to allow for new innovations in currencies.  This need for transformation represents an opportunity to redesign existing infrastructure to support cross-border CBDC transactions.

The current cross-border payments system involves correspondent banks in different jurisdictions using commercial bank money. Uncommitted credit lines used in cross-border transactions are a potential risk for any bank that relies on credit provided by a foreign correspondent bank. Interestingly, there is no single global payment and settlement system, only a complicated network of interbank relationships operating on mutual trust. While trust has allowed financial systems to function smoothly, when it begins to fail, as it did during the 2008 financial crisis, the result can be catastrophic.

Following the crisis, the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) implemented the Basel III agreement, which required banks to maintain additional capital against correspondent banking account exposures. These risk-weighted assets impose a costly capital charge on positions held by banks at other banks under correspondent arrangements. While this framework helps combat risk, it neglects to address the inherent problems in traditional correspondent banking that contribute to these risks.

Making the case for CBDCs

CBDCs can offer an improvement in settlement risks and are certainly thought to have potential benefits by the BIS. If implemented correctly, wholesale CBDCs can indeed accelerate interbank transactions while eliminating settlement risk. They can also encourage a more efficient and straightforward method of executing cross-border payments by reducing the number of intermediaries.

It is likely the evolution towards CBDCs will initially see the financial market supplement rather than replace existing payment instruments with new types of digital currency. CBDCs will coexist with current forms of money in a wholesale context, and their payment rails will also work alongside the existing payment systems. In simple terms, CBDCs will need to be linked to the broader capital markets ecosystem and applications such as securities settlement, funding, and liquidity.

If built with an innovation-first mindset, the future of banking infrastructure should provide full interoperability and convertibility between fiat, CBDCs, and any other type of digital money used in wholesale payments.

The future of CBDCs

To unlock the full potential of CBDCs, a ‘corridor network’ will need to be formed. This involves combining multiple wholesale CDBCs into a single, interoperable network under common governance agreed upon by all central banks involved. The legal framework of this platform would then allow for payment versus payment (PvP) or, where applicable, delivery versus payment settlement.

Practical wholesale CBDCs appear to be on the horizon, either as a supplement to existing financial systems or as part of a transition to a digital, cashless world. Looking ahead, central banks would benefit from collaborating with fintechs that provide innovative cloud native technology to enable seamless wholesale cross-border payments without interfering with the flow of funds. If wholesale CBDCs are to become a reality, fintechs must be prepared to accommodate them.

 

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Green growth: The unstoppable rise of climate technology investment

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With the investment community focusing more and more on renewable technologies, investor interest is at an all-time high. Ian Thomas, managing director, Turquoise, reviews the current investment landscape and highlights the opportunities for investors keen to capitalise on this growing trend.

Green, or climate, finance is a label for providers of finance who are supporting investments seeking positive environmental impact. The label covers investments in green infrastructure, venture capital investment in clean technologies and renewable energy. Green finance has grown by leaps and bounds in recent years, supporting public wellbeing and social equity while reducing environmental risks and improving ecological integrity.

Worldwide, energy investment is forecast to increase by 8% in 2022 to $2.4 trillion, according to a new report by the International Energy Agency, with the expected rise coming mostly from clean energy – $1.4 trillion in total. To put this rocketing figure into some perspective, clean energy investment only rose by 2% annually in the five years following the signing of the Paris Agreement in 2015. Energy transition investment has some way to go, however – between 2022 and 2025, to get on track for global net zero, it must rise by three times the current amount to average $2,063 billion. [1]

Turquoise has been active for almost 20 years as a venture capital investor and adviser to companies in the climate technology space that are raising capital and/or selling their business to a strategic acquirer. Reviewing current industry investment news, as well as drawing on examples from the portfolio of Low Carbon Innovation Fund 2 (LCIF2), managed by Turquoise, I have commented below the latest on the renewable energy trends most piquing investor interest.

 

Solar PV

Renewable power is leading the charge when it comes to investment, with wind energy and solar PV emerging as the cheapest option for new power generation across many countries, and now accounting for more than 80% of total power sector investment. Solar power is responsible for half of new investment in renewable power, with spending divided roughly equally between utility scale projects and distributed solar PV systems.

This huge increase in solar spending, which continues in spite of supply chain issues affecting raw material delivery, has been driven by Asia, largely China (BloombergNEF, 2022). Meanwhile, Europe is re-doubling its efforts to achieve an energy transition away from Russian gas and other fossil fuels, building on investment that was already rising steadily prior to the outbreak of war in Ukraine. Germany, the UK, France and Spain all exceeded $10 billion on low-carbon spending in 2021.[2]

 

Wind

Last year was a record year for offshore wind deployment with more than 20GW commissioned, accounting for approximately $40 billion in investment. The first half of 2022 saw $32 billion invested in offshore wind, 52% more than in the same period in 2021 (BloombergNEF, 2022). Taking into account also onshore wind, in 2021 investment was spearheaded by China, followed by the US and Brazil.[3]

In the UK, suggested targets include plans to host 50GW of offshore wind capacity, as well as 10GW of green and blue hydrogen production, by 2030. Investors will naturally be encouraged by proposals to simplify the planning process across the board for renewable projects.[4] France and Germany have also increased their offshore wind targets, signalling further support for investment.

 

Decarbonising housing: the business opportunity

The need to decarbonise residential housing, made all the more urgent by current energy prices, also offers substantial scope for investment. The gas price spike is naturally increasing interest in technology such as electric heat pumps, which had already enjoyed 15% growth in 2021 albeit from a very low base.

Recently, Turquoise announced an investment by Low Carbon Innovation Fund 2 (LCIF2) in Switchd, which operates MakeMyHouseGreen, a data-driven platform that allows homeowners to source and install domestic renewable energy generation, including solar panels and battery storage with other energy saving products in the pipeline. The investment will enable Switchd to roll out the MakeMyHouseGreen platform to a much larger number of customers. The latest episode of the Talks with Turquoise podcast series saw us interview Switchd co-founder Llewellyn Kinch about the UK energy market and national transition to decarbonisation, covering the rise of residential renewable energy and energy efficiency.

 

Adapting to the low-carbon economy

Meanwhile, investors should not forget opportunities on the other side of the energy market. Renewables are undoubtedly exciting investors, but there are also opportunities for fossil fuel companies to adapt their business models to the low-carbon economy. Turquoise advised GT Energy, a portfolio company from our first fund that develops deep geothermal heat projects, on its sale to IGas Energy, a leading UK onshore oil & gas producer. Under IGas ownership, GT Energy will progress its flagship 14MW project to supply zero-carbon heat to the city of Stoke-on-Trent through a council-owned district heating network.

 

A broad investment landscape

Forecasts show that renewables will increase to 60% of power generation in Europe by 2030, and 40% in the US and China by the same date.[5] As demand rises for climate technology, the investment opportunities in green finance are far broader than they ever have been. Undoubtedly, as the energy crisis continues, investor interest will continue to soar to even greater heights.

[1] https://www.iea.org/news/record-clean-energy-spending-is-set-to-help-global-energy-investment-grow-by-8-in-2022
[2] https://ihsmarkit.com/research-analysis/global-power-and-renewables-research-highlights-july-2022.html
[3] https://dialogochino.net/en/uncategorised/56938-global-wind-energy-council-vice-chair-brazil-offshore-wind-accelerating-2/
[4] https://www.edie.net/uks-clean-energy-investment-ranking-rises-after-government-sets-95-low-carbon-electricity-target-for-2030/
[5] https://www.spglobal.com/en/research-insights/featured/energy-transition-renewables-remain-the-cornerstone-of-future-power-generation

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