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What happens to your investments after your death?

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By Jaco Prinsloo, certified financial planner at Alexforbes

Financial planning regarding the succession of investments is rarely carried out, at least in South Africa. As a result, potential heirs are often not sure what to do or where to start to claim and settle a loved ones investments. In many cases, the family is unaware of the existence of an investment portfolio. With succession planning, the transfer of assets (whether property, your bank accounts, cars or investments) is facilitated.

Today I want to focus on investment and the succession planning of investments, specifically discretionary investments, compulsory investments and policies. The type of investment will determine how the assets and proceeds get distributed, so we first need to look at the different investment types:

Discretionary investments

Discretionary investments are any investment you make with after tax money at your own discretion. Discretionary investments include:

  • Unit trusts
  • Money market accounts
  • Fixed deposits
  • South African retail bonds
  • Share portfolios
  • Tax free savings accounts

Jaco Prinsloo

These investments will form part of your estate and will be subject to estate duty and executor’s fees. However allthou a tax-free savings account forms part of your estate there are no executor’s fees payable. The proceeds from the investments will be distributed as per your Will to your nominated beneficiaries after your estate has been settled. Because these investments form part of your estate the investments will be “frozen” and no transaction or changes can be made to the investments until the proceeds are paid to the estate.

Investment and Life Policies

Life insurance is a type of insurance contract where you agree to pay premiums to keep your life cover active. If you pass away, the life insurance company will pay the life cover benefit directly to your nominated beneficiaries, which can be a person or your estate.

You also get investment policies like living annuities and endowment policies where the investment value pays to the nominated beneficiaries on your passing. One benefit of investment and life policies is that it does not form part of your estate, which means no estate duty and the proceeds get paid directly to your nominated beneficiaries giving them access to cash while they wait for the estate to be wind up. Making it an essential part of anyone’s overall financial plan.

Compulsory investments

Compulsory investments are investments which are compulsory with some employers. Working for some companies you might be required to be part of a provident or pension fund as part of your employment contract. Compulsory investments might also offer some tax benefits but investors have limited access to their money and these investments are governed by Regulation 28 stipulating where and how you can invest. Compulsory investments can be summarised as “retirement funds” and include:

  • Pension fund
  • Provident fund
  • Retirement annuity fund
  • Preservation funds

The proceeds from retirement funds are distributed as per Section 37C of the Pension Fund Act.

Which means the trustees of the fund will use their discretion to distribute the proceeds of your retirement savings to insure all dependents and beneficiaries receive equal and fair benefits. Belonging to a retirement fund you will be required to nominate beneficiaries but its important to remember the beneficiary nomination is seen as a guide to the trustees or a “wish list” and the ultimate decision on how the benefits get distributed lies with the trustees of the fund.

As shown above, it is important to keep your Will and nominated beneficiaries updated on your policies and retirement funds. So how to plan for succession?

The first step is to talk to your family members about your investments and the administrator of these investments. Secondly you can create an organised folder with all the documentation of your investments, policies, copy of your Will and personal documents like your ID copy and bank statements. Your family does not need to know the value of the investments but the knowledge of the investments and where to find all your important documents will make it easier for them to start the claim process. Speak to a certified financial planner for advice on your beneficiary nominations and to formalise your wishes in a document, thus setting up a will.

Finance

Mini-Budget 2022:

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Tax giveaway is a boost for business, but will it drive growth or fuel inflation?

 

Chancellor Kwasi Kwarteng has announced a comprehensive wave of tax cuts and other incentives for individuals and businesses, as well as confirming some of the announcements made earlier this week.  The measures are part of a new Growth Plan, which is aiming to boost economic growth. However, only time will tell if they will curb inflation and temper recession concerns.

Richard Godmon, tax partner at accountancy firm, Menzies LLP, said:

“With another fiscal statement to follow, this mini-Budget is a defining moment for the new Government and tax cuts are firmly back on the agenda.

“The biggest surprise was the decision to simplify Income Tax by moving to a single higher rate of tax for high earners of 40%, with effect from April next year. This will encourage a spirit of entrepreneurialism by incentivising work and putting money back into the economy. The flip side is that the Government might also be hoping that the move increases the tax take, as it could help to draw people back to the UK who may have previously chosen to live and work elsewhere, while encouraging others to stay put.

“The reduction in dividend tax rates and the abolition of the additional rate of tax from April 2023 means that business owners will need to consider carefully the timing of dividend payments over the next few months.”

Up to 40 new Investment Zones

The Chancellor also outlined plans to create up to 40 new ‘investment zones’ in England, with the potential for more in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Businesses in these zones will benefit from wide-ranging tax breaks including 100% tax relief on investments in plant and machinery, and no National Insurance Contributions will be payable on the first £50,000 earned by new employees.

Richard Godmon, tax partner at Menzies LLP, said: “The new Investment Zones are reminiscent of the former Enterprise Zones, but they will provide a much more favourable tax environment for businesses and they promise to become a magnet for inward investment. There are currently 38 areas in England on the list for consideration and we look forward to finding out which ones will be selected.”

Incentivising business investment and Corporation Tax rise ‘cancelled’

The limit of the Annual Investment Allowance (AIA) will not revert to £200,000 as planned in April next year, it will now permanently stay at £1 million.

Richard Godmon, tax partner at Menzies LLP, said:

“Capital allowances are highly valued by businesses and they will be pleased that this one in particularly is going to stick at £1 million and that this is no longer being described as a temporary measure, but is to be made permanent.

“The decision to cancel the planned increase in Corporation Tax (due to tax effect next April) will be a relief to many small and medium-sized businesses who have been concerned that this increase would erode profits further and make it even more challenging to remain viable.”

Incentivising entrepreneurial investment

The Chancellor highlighted plans to increase the cap on investments that can be made under the Seed Enterprise Investment Scheme (SEIS) from £150,000 to £250,000. Individuals making investments in start-ups up have had the limit doubled to £200,000, with the 50% income tax relief remining the same. The Government also gave its commitment to continuing to back the Enterprise Investment Scheme (EIS).

“These announcements send a signal to entrepreneurial investors that tax should not be a barrier and the Chancellor wants to expand incentives in this area,” added Richard Godmon, tax partner at Menzies LLP.

Stamp Duty Land Tax

The threshold at which Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT) becomes payable on residential property purchases in the UK has been raised to £250,000, double its previous level in a bid to boost the property market. In addition, first-time buyers will not have to pay SDLT on property purchases up to a value of £425,000 (up from £300,000). Both measures will take effect from today.

Richard Godmon, tax partner at Menzies LLP, said:

“The decision to raise the SDLT threshold is designed to build consumer confidence and boost the housing market generally. For property developers it will fuel activity by creating demand, particularly from first-time buyers, and help to free up finance to front-end development projects.”

IR35 Changes

Richard Godmon, tax partner at Menzies LLP, said:

“The repealing of the 2017 and 2021 IR35 changes will be hugely welcomed as it will remove an administrative burden, risk and cost, enabling businesses to devote resources to furthering their growth strategies.

“It is important to recognise that IR35 has not been abolished and the result of the changes is that the risk and compliance costs are being returned to the individuals and their personal service companies.  HMRC will no doubt redirect their focus towards the contractors, which will bring challenges and make enforcement more difficult.”

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Anyone Can Become an R&D Tax Expert with the Right Foundations

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Ian Cashin is a Customer Success Manager at Fintech company and R&D tax software provider WhisperClaims

 

For accounting firms, R&D tax credits offer a substantial opportunity to boost revenue and strengthen client relationships. According to Ian Cashin, Customer Success Manager at WhisperClaims, perceived complexities can be overcome with the right approach and support. Indeed, by embracing a few simple practices, any company can become an expert in R&D tax.

Building Confidence

Growing revenue through new business is far more challenging than unlocking revenue from an existing client base. However, a significant number of accounting firms are losing out on value-added opportunities as a result of their lack of confidence or knowledge in R&D tax relief.

Yet, advisors who follow best practice are now in an ideal position to use their extensive client knowledge to mitigate their clients’ risk of and potential exposure to interrogation over fraudulent claims, ahead of HMRC’s introduction of more stringent R&D tax processes in April 2023.

So why are firms reluctant? There is no doubt that the R&D tax credit procedure is different. Compared to other areas of tax regulation, it leaves greater room for interpretation. But it is readily understandable by a qualified accountant – even an unqualified trainee. Understanding what HMRC considers to fall under the scope of research and development is key. Astrophysicists and Formula 1 manufacturers are not the only people who employ science and technology to overcome business challenges. Every day, UK firms of all sizes engage in R&D activities, from civil engineers to food manufacturers, yet far too many have not yet filed claims, losing out on critical cash.

The most important thing to keep in mind is that, as an accountant, you already have a far deeper relationship with your client compared to any other service provider. Once you have raised your level of understanding, you are in the perfect position to optimise this.

Leveraging  Insight

Accountants already have a unique understanding of their clients’ operations –  insight which,  as professional advisors, will help to highlight companies most likely to qualify for an R&D tax rebate. Furthermore, with access to tools like R&D tax claim preparation technology, developed by R&D tax professionals, they are able to significantly speed up the process. This technology enables accountants to easily determine the top targets within their client base, indicating where to focus the efforts of their emerging R&D tax service.

Using this priority list in conjunction with their understanding of the criteria HMRC stipulates, an accountant can leverage their client knowledge and relationship to engage in a conversation regarding daily R&D activities and unlock potential tax relief opportunities.

Moreover, facilitated by a specialist R&D tax claims preparation platform, accountants can be assured of a structured process that prompts the right questions to ask clients during these conversations, and highlights answers that are either in sync with, or fall outside of, the HMRC parameters. For instance, ca restaurant owner adding vegan alternatives to the menu is not on the same level as a food producer starting the development and manufacturing of a fully plant-based product line. The latter will undoubtedly be eligible for R&D tax assistance, but not the former. Accountants should use their position as “professional advisors” in this situation to push back against clients, especially those who may have previously been unwittingly misled.

Best Practices

For the last twenty years, since the introduction of R&D tax rebates in 2001, best practice has been the provision of a detailed report, complementary to the CT600 form, to mitigate the chance of HMRC asking supplementary questions. The technical purpose of the claim as well as the business context must be covered in this report, e.g. the challenges faced; how science and technology were used to overcome these; and the professionals employed who overcame them. Simply put, if the challenges weren’t difficult to solve, it wasn’t R&D.

It’s also critical to keep in mind that R&D claims cannot simply be copied and pasted from year to year. R&D is not necessarily a constant; demand for it changes in line with the evolution of the business’ activity or stage of development. as businesses change and go to the next stage of development.

The accountant’s already solid client relationship and interpersonal abilities come into their own in such situations. Particularly if the appropriate course of action is to suggest that the client should not submit an R&D claim, an accountant must feel comfortable advising the client accordingly. The claim belongs to the client; if it is contested, the client will be the one facing an HMRC investigation. An advisor must be self-assured enough to refuse to input erroneous claims without endangering the client relationship.

Conclusion

Recent years have seen accountancy firms strengthen their position as dependable, trusted business advisors. Discussions regarding a business owner’s long-term objectives, succession and exit plans, as well as pensions and investments, have become commonplace. It should be natural to include R&D tax into these conversations . Asking a customer about their investment in R&D should be a common practice – business as usual –  just as it is to inquire about investment in infrastructure or buildings.

The only thing preventing accountants from successfully adding R&D tax to their suite of services  is a lack of confidence. Yet, any reservations can be addressed with a straightforward ‘back to basics’ R&D training course, as well as using technology to gain access to a completely new revenue stream with their current clientele. Now that HMRC is openly calling for a much more rigorous, trusted, and evidence-based approach to R&D tax from 2023, accountants hold all the cards they need to gain confidence and give clients the trusted service they desire.

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