Coreless Banking Is the Future: Here’s How to Get There
By Abhishek Bhattacharya, Group Vice President at Publicis Sapient
For decades, banks have run core banking systems (CBS) that control a huge range of essential functions. But the era of sprawling, “maximalist” core systems that absorb everything from customer information to regulatory reporting has run its course. Banking technology is undergoing a profound transformation leading to an entirely different—‘minimalist’—approach to CBS architecture.
A modern CBS bears virtually no resemblance to existing legacy systems. Where previous generations of CBS ran a huge range of functions, modern systems have stripped away all but the most fundamental, leaving a core comprising just accounts, transactions and product definitions. In today’s “coreless” banking architecture, everything else sits outside this stripped-down set of functions, connecting to them via APIs.
The advantages of this architecture are significant. Because functions are separated out and linked via APIs, innovation in each area is set free. Banks can innovate faster and choose the best solutions—proprietary or external—or each function. Without a conventional core, the coreless bank can accelerate innovation and transform the customer experience.
The journey from legacy tech to coreless banking
So goes the theory—and it has wide acceptance. In the 2022 Publicis Sapient Global Banking Benchmark Study, which surveyed 1,000 senior banking leaders, the top priority to achieve operational transformation—cited by 37 percent—was to transition to a modern, cloud-based CBS. Among leaders of the largest institutions (with assets of more than $1 trillion) 48 percent of respondents made this their number one goal.
There are two main approaches to this problem.
Progressively modernise by Simplifying, building, migrating
Under this model, the bank breaks down, or simplifies, its core operations into a series of processes, or domains, customer or regulatory reporting, for example. For each in turn it then builds a replacement API-enabled architecture and migrates the data to the new system.
Jumping to a new architecture
This involves building a new system alongside the legacy CBS and then migrating to it. Jump resembles Simplify, Build, Migrate, but focuses less on “simplifying” the existing CBS in order to be able to transfer functions out of it incrementally. Instead, jump focuses on the build and migrate stages of the transition, creating a new, separate banking architecture and “jumping” over to it. This approach can work well when the bank moves into a new business line that is not supported by the legacy CBS and builds a separate system to run that product. This step could offer a route to begin a progressive migration of functions out of the legacy core.
Strengths and weaknesses
The simplify, build, migrate and jump approaches both offer important advantages along with weaknesses that make them better adapted to some situations than others.
Key considerations with the jump approach include:
- It has the advantage of allowing a fresh start unencumbered by the legacy systems. This brings an opportunity to rethink all the bank’s processes from first principles and to incorporate modern tools such as cloud computing, and cognitive technologies.
- Against that, it commits the bank to the effort and expense of running two core systems in parallel for an extended period. This duplicates operations and increases complexity.
For simplify, build, migrate they include:
- Taking an incremental approach can allow the transformation team to concentrate first on those domains where migration will deliver the biggest strategic and operational benefits.
- This can produce tangible results earlier than with Jump, because individual processes are migrated one after another, rather than aiming for a more comprehensive migration.
- However, precisely because of its incremental approach, progressive modernisation can ultimately take longer to achieve transformation than Jump. Indeed, many might argue that more than a decade of incremental modernization has so far failed to deliver the core systems that banks know they require.
With these strengths and caveats in mind, we believe banks need to take a portfolio approach to modernising their CBS, choosing which approach to adopt depending on the problem they are addressing and the commercial environment they are operating in.
There are various factors that should influence the bank’s approach to modernization. They are:
We believe it is important for banks to consider radical options for transformation as well as incremental modernisation. Radical approaches bring more risk, but banks that have an urgent need to achieve change must accept more risk.
Very long-term projects, such as progressive modernisation will require the organisation to commit to a process that lasts years. Maintaining urgency for several years present major challenges, especially in organisations where the project is devolved to multiple CIOs with separate budgets and with changing organisational priorities. Project and budgetary governance become all-important..
To some extent both the approaches we have discussed require banks to deal with increased complexity. They are likely to involve running multiple systems in parallel, possibly for several years. This will involve additional cost and a more complex set of operations.
There is no perfect end-state, rather a set of choices. There may be decades-old products that are effectively in run-off. In instances like this, maintaining elements of the legacy system represents a pragmatic choice.
The direction of travel in banking towards a “coreless” future is not in dispute. But the process of core modernization presents a range of challenges and opportunities that must be carefully balanced to reach an optimal balance of risk and return.
To achieve this, banks need to:
- Assess how they plan to combine the two central approaches to migration that we have identified, map them to the range of functions that must be migrated and decide which functions are to be removed from the existing core system first
- Focus on delivering “quick wins” that will provide tangible benefits early in the process and demonstrate to internal stakeholders the direction of travel
- Identify ways to achieve the project and budget governance structures that will best support their migration strategy
- Decide which parts of the coreless architecture are best built internally, and which should be sourced from external specialist providers
Here’s to 2023 being the year that more banks transition to a modern, cloud-based CBS and achieve operational transformation within their business by moving to a coreless banking architecture.
Top banking trends of 2023 and global outlook of banking and fintech for the year ahead
Author: Professor Marco Mongiello, Pro Vice-Chancellor, The University of Law Business School
You’d be forgiven for assuming that the global outlook for banking and fintech will be dominated by the usual suspects:
Artificial Intelligence – AI plays an increasingly prominent role in banking and fintech by enabling personalised services, fraud detection, predictive analytics, use of chatbots and robo-advisors.
Blockchain and Cryptocurrency – the secure, decentralised and swift system for financial transactions that blockchain has brought to the fore a few years ago, is now becoming ubiquitous. An increasing number of transactions are recorded through blockchains technology, primarily in the cryptocurrency market.
Digital Banking and fintech – accelerated by COVID-19 pandemic, the adoption of digital banking is a trend that will persist as customers have become accustomed to the convenience and efficiency of digital banking. Moreover, fintech enables access to financial services for previously underserved populations in developing countries or less affluent social groups in more affluent societies. This includes mobile banking services, peer-to-peer lending platforms, and microfinance solutions.
Open Banking – another global trend is the use of open APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) that allow third-party developers to build apps to facilitate customers’ access to financial data and services from banks.
Nonetheless, the challenges posed by these rapid changes are reminders that banking, an industry that by its very nature needs to be conservative, risk averse and solid, wobbles on the unchartered grounds of fast and turbulent innovation, where entrepreneurship instead thrives. The underlying rationales of banking and fast digital innovation are not incompatible but do need solid operations and thought-through decision-making to avoid causing catastrophic collapses.
The recent examples of Silicon Valley Bank, Silvergate, FTX and Wirecard are stark reminders that digital entrepreneurship applied to banking doesn’t just bring to customers the visible transformation of valuable new services, but also dents (perhaps as an unexpected consequence) the rationale itself of the role of banks in the global economy. Moreover, the central banks’ ability to contain the effects of single banks’ defaults is no longer a certainty, as experienced just over a decade ago and more recently. The markets’ sentiments are hardly reassured by the commitments of even the most coveted players, such as the European Central Bank, the Federal Reserve, and the President of the United States himself.
Regulators are lagging behind and their attempts to catch up may cause further seismic shocks to the global banking system. For example, another trend that is emerging is one of artificial intelligence decision-centres (i.e., decentralised offices of banks which take autonomous decisions on behalf of investors) outside the most stringent regulatory environments, enabling banks to operate globally more efficiently and more competitively. And we can expect that regulators will close the gap either abruptly, as it is currently happening in China, where private banks are subject to an escalation of regulatory and monitoring restrictions, or more gradually as it is happening in Europe and in the US.
The questions we face, as individual or trade customers of our high street banks, as direct investors or clients of managed funds, are whether banking will become more user-friendly yet, for our daily use but riskier, too, or is it simply becoming more efficient, transparent and also safer.
I’m afraid that the answer is by no means an obvious one. Therefore, caution, level-headed decision- making and critical thinking have never been as important as these days. Whether you are looking after your family savings or growing your pension reserve, the imperative is that you keep updated about the providers of the financial services you rely upon as well as about the general regulations that apply to your financial transactions. This is where, for example, you need to be familiar with your rights in case of cyber fraud, as well as learning how to minimise the risk of becoming a victim thereof. Also, taking additional steps to evaluate the credibility, solidity and reliability of the online provider of that app that was recommended by a trusted friend, may prove a very good move.
Similarly, whether you are the CFO of a medium or large company, or are a sole trader wrestling with your own business’s finances, you need to reflect on what you really want from your bank in the first place. That is before you started to be swayed by the whirlpool of offers of ‘opportunities’ to multiply your financial investments. Chances are that your initial approach to your bank was dictated by either a need for financing your working capital, as per your budget and strategic plans, or to find a safe place for your temporarily idle liquidity. Perhaps you were also after some basic treasury services such as swift payments and debt collection. Maybe some other financial services closely related to your business operations, e.g. factoring. The advice is to give very careful consideration to services that are more remote from your business, because the trend for the next years is that more and more of those will be offered to you. But many new services will disappoint those who, sadly, cannot afford financial mishaps as they look to run and grow their business.
Will ‘Britcoin’ change the way we bank?
The Treasury and Bank of England recently announced a state-backed digital pound is likely to be launched in the UK later this decade, following the popularity of cryptocurrencies. However, the ‘Britcoin’ will be backed by the central bank, ensuring the digital pound will be much less volatile than its sister, cryptocurrency. Could a digital pound backed by the central bank be the answer to utilising technological developments in the finance system for the better?
Ross Thompson, Accountancy and Finance Lecturer at Arden University, considers what we can expect from ‘Britcoin’, how this will impact consumers, businesses, and the economy, and whether ‘Britcoin’ could be the revolution to restore our confidence in the banking system.
Trust in our financial system hit an all-time low post the 2008 financial crash. Even ten years on from the collapse of Lehman Brothers, a survey found 66% of adults in Britain still don’t trust banks to work in the best interests of society.
This means there remains to be apprehension for people to sign up to and use a bank to help manage their money. The UK doesn’t seem to struggle too much in this arena, however, as according to the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), most UK consumers (96%) have a current account from a bank or building society. Regardless, there is still a significant number of adults who do not have a bank account or are what is known as ‘unbanked’.
The lack of trust plays a big part here. More people want better control over their money and to cut out the middleman, hence why cryptocurrencies and blockchain became a tempting option, as it can potentially remove the need for banks for any transactions. However, the volatility of these currencies has been a cause for concern for many investors and regulators.
Blockchain and cryptocurrency are gaining more traction and are becoming more of a viable option for businesses, especially due to talks of regulations coming into fruition. This is especially true with cryptocurrency, with the government announcing crypto assets will be subject to FCA rules in line with the same high standards that other financial promotions such as stocks, shares, and insurance products are held to.
The “Britcoin” aims to solve the issues traditional Bitcoin presents. It would be backed by the central bank, which would ensure its stability and reduce its volatility, making it a more attractive option for investors and providing greater confidence in the stability of the financial system. Britcoin will be as stable as the inherent stability of the British economy and political system. It would also provide an opportunity for the UK to stay at the forefront of technological developments in the finance system – a system in which it can sometimes be slow to react.
One of the key benefits of a digital pound is that it would be much faster and more efficient than traditional banking systems. Transactions could be completed almost instantly, regardless of where the parties involved are located. This would make cross-border transactions much easier and could even help to boost international trade.
The Bank of England’s Governor, Andrew Bailey, stated: “a digital pound would provide a new way to pay, help businesses, maintain trust in money and better protect financial stability”, pointing toward the other advantage of a digital pound. It would offer more security as transactions would be recorded on a distributed ledger, which would make it much more difficult for hackers to tamper with the system. It would also provide greater transparency, as all transactions would be recorded on the ledger and could be easily traced if needed.
However, there are also some potential drawbacks. One concern is that it could lead to a reduction in the use of cash, which could have implications for those who do not have access to digital technologies or who prefer to use cash for privacy reasons. There are also concerns that a digital pound could be used for illicit activities, such as money laundering or terrorism financing. On top of this, more details are required in relation to the levels of personal account privacy; the potential to usher in ‘big brother’ banking systems is a growing a concern regarding state digital currencies.
Around 85 central banks are currently engaged in projects to create digital currencies, according to figures from the Bank for International Settlements. But as it stands, many feel there is probably little need for a digital pound; with a growing amount of people using their debit cards, phones and watches to fulfil the same function, a digital pound is deemed unnecessary. On top of this, many of the public fear that a government digital currency could potentially infringe on their privacy – despite the BoE stating the currency would be subject to rigorous standards of privacy and data protection.
And in countries where a digital currency has already been established, there has been little uptake – widely due to the lack of trust between central banks and citizens. It seems gaining users’ confidence should be the Bank’s first priority. The House of Lords economic affairs committee stated last year that a digital pound would pose “significant risks” such as state surveillance, financial instability as people convert bank deposits to CBDC during periods of economic stress, an increase in central bank power without sufficient scrutiny and could be exploited by hostile states and criminals; it is safe to say that the nation’s ‘Britcoin’ will need to be very well thought out.
It has the potential to revolutionize the finance system, however, and could provide significant benefits to investors and consumers alike. However, the potential risks and drawbacks must be carefully considered before any decision is made to launch such a currency. Having said that, if it is implemented correctly, a digital pound could be a powerful tool for utilising technological developments in the finance system for the better.
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